More changes have taken place in Christian-Jewish relations in the past 40 years than in the previous two millennia. With the Vatican II declaration of Nostra Aetate (1965), and the subsequent Guidelines (1974), Notes (1985), and We Remember: A Reflection on the Shoah, and the many other statements that followed, the Catholic Church and numerous Christian denominations have reached out to Jews in friendship to advance shared goals of repairing the world. From these mutual collaborations, come a living relationship serving as a model of understanding for all of humanity. Christians have rejected anti-Semitic readings of the Christian Scriptures, removed negative portrayals of Jews and Judaism in their catechetical and liturgical texts, and rejected the covenantal theology of substitution and the charge of "deicide" against the Jewish people. Established in 1992, the Center for Christian-Jewish Understanding is an educational and research division of Sacred Heart University and is a direct outgrowth of the Second Vatican Council's teachings which encourage interreligious dialogue and understanding.